Macronutrients are those nutrients which are needed in high quantities by the body.
Are macronutrients.

Micronutrients are those nutrients which are required only in small quantities.
*vitamins* and *minerals* are micronutrients.
*Dietary goals—- ICMR*
-Not more than 20% of total energy shout be from fat source
-Saturated fat should not constitute 10% of total energy.
-Protein should provide 20% of total energy intake.
-Refined carbohydrates consumption should be restricted.
-Salt consumption should be less than 5g/day
-Junk foods that provide empty calories are to be avoided.
-Alcohol & fat have to be restricted.

Carbohydrates May be _simple_ or _complex_.
-They form the major source of energy (4kcal/g).
-About 80% of the calories for Indians come from the carbs in cereals, pulses and millets.
-Fibre content makes complex carb a healthier practice than refined carb consumption.

– Fibre in diet retards and delays the absorption of carbohydrates.
– It increases satiety value of food.
-It helps reduce blood glucose
-It helps reduce cholesterol
-It prevents constipation
-25g/day is the minimum requirement of fibre

-Proteins form the basic structural and functional unit of life
-Body synthesizes proteins that are either structural, or function as enzymes.
– Proteins are synthesized using amino acids from diet
– Proteins are found in muscle, bone, cartilage and skin.
-The amino acids that cannot be synthesised by our body are called essential amino acids.
-Proteins are also a source of energy. 4kcal/gram of protein is obtained.

-Oils, Ghee, Butter and vanaspati form visible dietary fats.
-Invisible fats are also obtained from food, for example rice has 2-3% of fat in it.
-Fats provide 9kcal/g, being rich sources of energy.
-Different fats have fatty acids of different kinds.
-Fatty acids may be saturated, mono or polyunsaturated.
-Fats should be consumed in moderation.
-A sedentary adult requires 25 g of visible fat/day.

*Fats -Key points*
-Whole nuts can be substituted for some of the visible and invisible fats.
-High fat, saturated fatty acids, and cholesterol containing animal foods may be taken only moderately.
-As a source of linoleic acid, it’s good to use legumes, fenugreek, mustard and green leafy vegetables.
-Prefer fish over meat and poultry.
-Hydrogenated oils like vanaspati used in bakery and processed foods is not recommended.
-Do not use re-heated oil
-Organ meats like liver, kidney should be avoided.
_Animal proteins_ obtained from *eggs, milk, fish, meat have all the essential amino acids in adequate quantities.
_Plant or Vegetable protein _ obtained from pulses and legumes have lower content if essential amino acids.

*cholesterol* can be synthesised in the body.
– it is not considered as an essential dietary component.
-It is present in foods of animal origin like eggs, organ meats, milk, shrimp, prawn.
-Cholesterol is a component of all cells and plays important role on formation of brain and nerve tissue.
-It is precursor of vitamin D. Dietary cholesterol consumption should be kept below 300mg/day.

Vitamins are essential micronutrients because they cannot be synthesised in the body.
-Vitamins May be water-soluble or fat-soluble.
-Fat soluble vitamins are vitamin A, D, E, and K. They can be stored in the body.
-Water soluble vitamins B and C are excreted in the urine. So they have to be taken daily.
-Water soluble vitamins are destroyed easily by heating, cooking and processing.